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What Is the Difference Between Steel 1018 and 1020?


How many types of steel are there on the market? How many models are there? What does the number stand for? I am afraid that laymen or new entrants cannot answer these questions. Another question, what is the difference between steel 1018 and 1020? I think even some insiders cannot give out the answer. For most of us, 1018 and 1020 steel are very difficult to distinguish between them. Now, I will analyze their differences from the aspects of model definition, chemical composition, mechanical properties, application scope, etc.

Model definition of steel 1018

1018 steel is a low carbon penetration steel, and the 1018 implementation standard is the special technical condition of SATM SAME11310B. 1018 is an American material with a relatively high manganese content. It belongs to the American standard high-strength medium carbon steel plate.

10 of 1018 steel represents the carbon-manganese steel, while 18 represents the carbon content. 1018 steel is a high-quality carbon steel, cold-extruded, carburized and hardened steel. 1018 steel has low strength, good toughness, plasticity and weldability. The tensile strength is 253-500MPa, and the elongation is ≥24%. 1018 steel plate itself carries certain wear resistance, fatigue resistance, easy processing, welding and cold forming properties.

steel 1018 supplier.jpg

Chemical composition of steel 1018

C: 0.170.24

Mn: 0.600.90

P: ≤0.035

S: ≤0.035

Si: ≤0.20

Cr: ≤0.07

Cu: ≤0.20

Ni ≤0.15

Mo ≤0.05

Mechanical properties of steel 1018

Tensile strength σb (MPa): ≥450

Yield strength σs (MPa): ≥275

Elongation δ5 (%): ≥24

Area shrinkage ψ (%): ≥50

Application scope of steel 1018

Steel 1018 is widely used in gears, crankshafts, brackets, screws, nuts, riveted and welded structural parts, hardware, pistons, transmission shafts, machine tools, springs, the push rod, core fixing plate and other structures.

Model definition of 1020

1020 is a high-quality carbon structural steel. The steel grade of high-quality carbon structural steel is expressed in terms of the average mass fraction of carbon. Such as 20#, 45# and so on. 20# means C: 0.20% (20/10,000). The strength of 1020 is slightly higher than that of 1015 steel. It has good toughness, plasticity and weldability. It is rarely quenched and has no temper brittleness. Cold deformation has high plasticity, and is generally used for bending, calendering, flanging and hammer arch processing. The welding performance of arc welding and contact welding is good, the thickness of gas welding is small, and cracks are prone to occur on parts with strict shape requirements or complex shapes. The machinability of cold drawn or normalized state is better than that of annealed state, and is often used to manufacture various mechanical parts with low stress and high toughness requirements.

steel 1020.jpg

Chemical composition of steel 1020

Carbon C: 0.18~0.23%

Silicon Si: 0.10~0.40%

Manganese Mn: 0.30~0.60%

Phosphorus P: ≤0.040%

Sulfur S: ≤0.050%

Mechanical properties of steel 1020

Density ρ (kg/m3): about 7850

Tensile strength σb (MPa): ≥410

Yield strength σs (MPa): ≥245

Elongation δ5(%): ≥25

Section shrinkage ψ(%): ≥55

Brinell hardness (HBS10/3000) (unheated state): 156

Application scope of steel 1020

1020 steel is suitable for small and medium-sized carburizing, carbonitriding and other parts that are not very important in the manufacture of automobiles, tractors and general machinery manufacturing, with high surface hardness requirements and small core requirements, such as handbrake shoes on automobiles, Lever shaft, transmission speed fork, transmission driven gear and tractor upper camshaft, suspension equalizer shaft, inner and outer bushings of equalizer, etc.; in hot rolling or normalizing state, it is used to manufacture small force and high toughness. Various mechanical parts; in heavy and medium machinery manufacturing, such as forged or pressed tie rods, shackles, levers, sleeves, clamps, etc.

Heat treatment specification and critical point temperature of steel 1020

Specifications for softening of cold-pressed blanks: softening temperature of 700-720°C, heat preservation for 8-15h, cooling rate of 50-100°C/h, reduced to ≤550-600°C, and air-cooled. The hardness before treatment is less than or equal to 156HBS, and the hardness after treatment is less than or equal to 145HBS.

Normalizing specification: normalizing temperature is 870-920 ℃, and it is air-cooled.

Annealing specification: The annealing temperature is about 860 ℃, and it is cooled with the furnace.

Quenching specification: Quenching temperature (910±10) ℃, cooling in brine with 10% NaC1.

Critical temperature: Ac1=720-845℃, Ar1=815-730℃

Corresponding grade of steel 1020

National Sign 20

Japanese plate number S20C

American Sign 1020

German sign 1.1152


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